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polynôme de legendre

ℓ λ θ + P P The spherical harmonic functions form a complete orthonormal set of functions in the sense of Fourier series. is the hypergeometric function. ⁡ Author Daidalos Je développe le présent site avec le framework python Django. cos z�t|���� Q�nq]�u�"l����! > ⁡ or ϕ These functions may actually be defined for general complex parameters and argument: where ℓ cos ℓ ℓ of the form. {\displaystyle \lambda =\ell (\ell +1)} These functions express the symmetry of the two-sphere under the action of the Lie group SO(3). m {\displaystyle \geq } cos ) z In many occasions in physics, associated Legendre polynomials in terms of angles occur where spherical symmetry is involved. + Assuming 0 ≤ m ≤ ℓ, they satisfy the orthogonality condition for fixed m: Also, they satisfy the orthogonality condition for fixed ℓ: The differential equation is clearly invariant under a change in sign of m. The functions for negative m were shown above to be proportional to those of positive m: (This followed from the Rodrigues' formula definition. m is the gamma function and ) ) ⁡ = ) {\displaystyle Q_{\lambda }^{\mu }(z)} 2 m sin λ Průvodce výslovností: Naučte se vyslovovat polynôme de Legendre v francouzština. cos 5-&Se %AF�s�;!��Q T�"@# B�>C*1���"+��c�%�Zc�ٍ�Y�Jr�ͦ �W'Zr���!������ҟƅ[2?ƭ��`���܀�D ��Bv�O ��@�ĩ �-Վ�����rJ.G[���(R'�0 But we observed early on that {\displaystyle P_{\ell }^{m}(\cos \theta )} = {\displaystyle \sin(m\phi )} , where the superscript indicates the order, and not a power of P. Their most straightforward definition is in terms {\displaystyle (1-x^{2})^{1/2}=\sin \theta } ( {\displaystyle P_{\ell }^{m}(\cos \theta )} ℓ However, some subsets are orthogonal. and those solutions are proportional to. used above. In spherical coordinates θ (colatitude) and φ (longitude), the Laplacian is, is solved by the method of separation of variables, one gets a φ-dependent part When m is zero and ℓ integer, these functions are identical to the Legendre polynomials. ) In mathematics, the associated Legendre polynomials are the canonical solutions of the general Legendre equation (−) − + [(+) − −] =,or equivalently [(−) ()] + [(+) − −] =,where the indices ℓ and m (which are integers) are referred to as the degree and order of the associated Legendre polynomial respectively. μ , with weight ( 2 2 In mathematics, the associated Legendre polynomials are the canonical solutions of the general Legendre equation. θ nonsingular solutions only when ℓ The longitude angle, λ }[tpֳ��oڧғ>��c3����O�=�0�W"�qs���] �-��W�y���R� >��2�����6�~�)]��㷋4 ��v�f� �^�y��W_�y�PzXY���J(�T�W� 9��ped̾"�Ʌ���t��8YV��� `4�k��&�b,8��d��A7:�l#X��qf'�Sf��#��=(X�\wu�?=�],8`��@���t�[ Bs�n�$�Y�%Xx�5�i6}���`��O����#Ƣ���SE9!�r��~Hd������axBU*7�������nL�^��ղ�lh}�ok}�I�C%�>�d%KX�/��p��u�� ��:փR9x�*Аs�}��Q;Y�u윒i�q~n�` {\displaystyle {\textrm {If}}\quad {\mid }m{\mid }>\ell \,\quad \mathrm {then} \quad P_{\ell }^{m}=0.\,}, The differential equation is also invariant under a change from ℓ to ( the same differential equation as before: Since this is a second order differential equation, it has a second solution, This means • if n = 2p (even), the series for y1 terminates at c2p and y1 is a polynomial of degree 2p.The series for y2 is infinite and has radius of convergence equal to 1 and y2 is unbounded. {\displaystyle \ell {\geq }m} are orthogonal, parameterized by θ over ( {\displaystyle P_{\ell }^{m}(x)} ∇ Gram-Schmidt for functions: Legendre polynomials S. G. Johnson, MIT course 18.06, Spring 2009 (supplement to textbook section 8.5) March 16, 2009 Most of 18.06 is about column vectors in Rm or Rn and m n matrices. These functions are most useful when the argument is reparameterized in terms of angles, By repeating the argument, we get cn+4 = 0 and in general cn+2k = 0 for k ≥ 1. �oKc�{����]�ޯv}d�u>r��b�p�N�a����(,���3���tH`������F&Ȁ�ԥ�����f�Р�(�p)�l��2�D�H��~�u�6̩��pKA'>��mS��p����P3�)7n 1 with nIѣ"I˴GZ=�R��O|�' pr�!�%�p��ub��]���2��������a�F� AT�"�k+�|8�?���tsr�. %PDF-1.4 the angle θ {\displaystyle P_{1}^{1}} x for integer m≥0, and an equation for the θ-dependent part. 3 0 obj << 0 ( 0 ψ x��Z�s۸�_��Q�#_�����$�ܸN���]��#ѱ\Yr(����� �)پkz��!�k���oXD�#Q�c��V1Y4���?��}â�dJD�Q& SQbR�?_�#>}���g���z�����ߝβ4��ٻ��=9��u|r� ��|c LegendreP [n, m, a, z] gives Legendre functions of type a. . �[���HU}UT�s�P������V�KQ�7V��+���T��>�М��鋸��i�>=5 {\displaystyle \theta } ) ⁡ Associated Legendre polynomials play a vital role in the definition of spherical harmonics. P ( The associated Legendre polynomials are not mutually orthogonal in general. ����T�ea������a��Y櫭���XH���v�`�UWō+ml�v���z��e����UQ�O���㪸�ւ'����_ZK�\C3!���U}��9��7�b�ΫbK��ʣ�S"Dݛ��߾�&'Z�UjMw�&.>��3�/7뗨^�&-���r�U�)kN���?�*���D�'‘�%�/$jϭ� {,lVX��~���Le�F VK�ލ�Ӡ"L�2\��bV�1P��n����Fz�a(�[email protected])u-R�8�m��ժH�LK�M��"�3�p��S�$RGI�� ֛Ac��V�3p���J�A��Э��V�,�%�$k$��Q� O���)�̓�EP���y�0���k�'܁�� ^*�҈{I��6�Wn�Y����lߍ��z9�ݗ˪*�u�)o�Xv#PD|6����{��"���J,l=�z�|�|�z�i7*�'�1��"�p� The default is type 1. where the indices ℓ and m (which are integers) are referred to as the degree and order of the associated Legendre polynomial respectively. m ) These functions are denoted stream for fixed m, F What makes these functions useful is that they are central to the solution of the equation ⁡ has nonsingular separated solutions only when − {\displaystyle P_{2}^{2}} The associated Legendre polynomials are defined by . P polynôme de Legendre ترجمه و تلفظ صوتی + Dong and Lemus (2002)[4] generalized the derivation of this formula to integrals over a product of an arbitrary number of associated Legendre polynomials. x θ ( Crudely speaking, one may define a Laplacian on symmetric spaces; the eigenfunctions of the Laplacian can be thought of as generalizations of the spherical harmonics to other settings. ℓ Recalling the relation between the associated Legendre functions of positive and negative m, it is easily shown that the spherical harmonics satisfy the identity[5]. �����7�l��A��ɦ�2�2�q� �8��)= {\displaystyle P_{\ell }^{m}(\cos \theta )} They are all orthogonal in both ℓ and m when integrated over the ) {\displaystyle [0,\pi ]} θ {\displaystyle \sin \theta } For arbitrary complex values of n, m, and z, LegendreP [n, z] and LegendreP [n, m, z] give Legendre functions of the first kind. , h The Legendre polynomials are closely related to hypergeometric series. m sin ) This definition also makes the various recurrence formulas work for positive or negative m.), If ( For this we have Gaunt's formula [3]. ( In general, when ℓ and m are integers, the regular solutions are sometimes called "associated Legendre polynomials", even though they are not polynomials when m is odd. {\displaystyle \phi } Z2��ᜣ�:�b�X}�U��U�g\UI����U ���*������L~�U��:=�k�� ��0gC�4�3�cG{&uܼ:H��ZW��l���`)c+4��=^q־�c��YSu�ہ������T'LȘ�00������N�PL��s��a����Y3���e2Q B� ����5�K��=�'|"�rp���Čl)��-=����G}"L��x�)�'�nW����VK��ɰ��>����;R���ƆO^��0{'�P�����S+G�j���C�1�� �gW�Z� iO��ڝ�ZŠ�f�g���)���sR:���. These functions are related to the standard Abramowitz and Stegun functions P n m (x) by m are solutions of. Definition for non-negative integer parameters ℓ and, The first few associated Legendre functions, Generalization via hypergeometric functions, Applications in physics: spherical harmonics, This identity can also be shown by relating the spherical harmonics to, generalized form of the binomial coefficient, Whipple's transformation of Legendre functions, "The overlap integral of three associated Legendre polynomials", New Identities for Legendre Associated Functions of Integral Order and Degree, Associated Legendre polynomials in MathWorld, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Associated_Legendre_polynomials&oldid=984953755, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, all three orders are non-negative integers, This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 02:36. Y λ equate the coefficients of equal powers on the left and right hand side of, then it follows that the proportionality constant is, The following alternative notations are also used in literature:[2]. m {\displaystyle \cos(m\phi )} : Using the relation t {\displaystyle \Gamma } x��]����~��T/�U�o� H��M���$Z[�+�,�$;{ۇ���pHI�i{�M.yEQ��p�9����'_ff�L™�����:�Yh�%,�����W]��~�z�T���5W���\c߬vU�����K��(��Zޗͺ+iĶ���vSu��ͷ4!Kr�8Nx���dM�&��r�oۇ�o�����on��j�]�aY�j7�Ͷ��{j�4ͩ�c��~����l�:v�{Z���n��-���]�d����`�'[email protected]$\��wE�zp�x,��~�y�k�킙f �b��Ls����-�;|�QW�ӳ�m�;��j�����[email protected]��z�X54/`9��`Gu�-R���4$���1��j!�4 �D�(� ��(���t,I�%�5��t�g,��h���t -�~:�7�!�Y����%��G�$Ƙa�b�U��&�)_~�w;�X�6��}����KYt����6o�P�,_]sm�a�$4��$Բ��M� �'zkq5�ew|P�/�m��֏���K����;|��~�?<>T����f\��a�F������+�������~�zWm=!wB��]o.�_u�!-�1�7��6����Jl��$�� ̿m�]Ѹ��b2�����@t���"��#8$J8�Uq� ��E/[~�x����iw%�>>:��U]�V�8պt ⁡ Anglický překlad slova polynôme de Legendre. ⁡ More precisely, given an integer m /Length 4081 . : In terms of θ, both obey the various , ψ ϕ {\displaystyle x=\cos \theta } + The fully general class of functions with arbitrary real or complex values of ℓ and m are Legendre functions. For example, is not orthogonal to ( ( m P / λ Workers in the fields of geodesy, geomagnetism and spectral analysis use a different phase and normalization factor than given here (see spherical harmonics). sin ∣ ∣ 1 ≥ {\displaystyle P_{\ell }^{m}(\cos \theta )} In that case the parameters are usually labelled with Greek letters. This formula is to be used under the following assumptions: Other quantities appearing in the formula are defined as. ) There are many other Lie groups besides SO(3), and an analogous generalization of the Legendre polynomials exist to express the symmetries of semi-simple Lie groups and Riemannian symmetric spaces. [ *���o��$�N �~B�0x&������@�o�E��X㪼;���;�A� 2v{&D!��Ӊ���r-4̵ق.o,�A�w�S;V��~��S3�D3`2�����}|��GR �e��Boy�#ݟq2O�_��s6hj�[email protected]~k[z��)���c�5R�)O8�alHڟ9���A�� Z���y� 䄑�\�˴��0�gTpE�����ۃϲ�`8�2H���6'iH�-�;���d7��~�1����S/)&�m��]y%��}�B[�1k|�N��1M�xR��+M#5�����pZ`T��KYl�����2)� ��>��gD}�>~.��g�>~*�SӬ2�wk�ʛ�5�Ue��2tm۾M�GC��Z��ejf˭͢|CW����$P�x�6�/ֆ\�g�!��kC�u�Ǘy�Q�֔?�(WH������ �$�D�dR��''��|��^3���F>c�`�:1��2��}=n)?���Nn�Ŧ���`AV8A����!I86K�(5ML��d���A�E��0�>���.=��F^�Ņ�7��p���[\���l�wκ)�p�!�1]�����N`��Vb��Q�;Q�1���ۈ4рI���RM�� �����W��$d&��2�K��� ��� �[��Ł�[+1�G�0W�>�09ʂh(a�<9��O���`[�4��,����W��ǘgЏ��ZL܁wG��V�:a�qɓ1/�4yI. λ ℓ n ��� [email protected]� θ and 2 ( ) The solutions are usually written in terms of complex exponentials: The functions e ℓ The colatitude angle in spherical coordinates is The functions described by this equation satisfy the general Legendre differential equation with the indicated values of the parameters ℓ and m follows by differentiating m times the Legendre equation for Pℓ:[1], This equation allows extension of the range of m to: −ℓ ≤ m ≤ ℓ. ) m 1 2 for ℓ m λ ) ( z , Sanan polynôme de Legendre käännös ja ääntämisen äänite. stream Γ , the list given above yields the first few polynomials, parameterized this way, as: The orthogonality relations given above become in this formulation: . The definitions of Pℓ±m, resulting from this expression by substitution of ±m, are proportional. Q recurrence formulas given previously. /Filter /FlateDecode They are called the Legendre functions when defined in this more general way. P = %PDF-1.4 {\displaystyle Q_{\lambda }^{\mu }(z)} 1 x �32O���l�n�@�S��q��=�5�ۢ�fRI���9>�r�P�E���sS�#Q�Ftm���[0���}_��돝��[email protected]�,�6�+KR|i�FQ?��\[�g{���-�zz����_u�-9��=B3�5������Ec�J�/t��}��-Ӛg�C��?A4�v)%E ���TW�3Ś���[email protected] ��S��k�G���nc6|33J~y�S���M�h�4�` %���� The Legendre polynomials are orthogonal with unit weight function. The Legendre ordinary differential equation is frequently encountered in physics and other technical fields. راهنمای تلفظ: بیاموزید چگونه polynôme de Legendre را به فرانسوی به زبان محلی تلفظ کنید. {\displaystyle P_{\lambda }^{\mu }(z)} ⁡ surface of the sphere. ℓ LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS AND APPLICATIONS 3 If λ = n(n+1), then cn+2 = (n+1)n−λ(n+2)(n+1)cn = 0. = θ ℓ When in addition m is even, the function is a polynomial. The first few associated Legendre functions, including those for negative values of m, are: These functions have a number of recurrence properties: Helpful identities (initial values for the first recursion): The integral over the product of three associated Legendre polynomials (with orders matching as shown below) is a necessary ingredient when developing products of Legendre polynomials into a series linear in the Legendre polynomials. θ μ For instance, this turns out to be necessary when doing atomic calculations of the Hartree–Fock variety where matrix elements of the Coulomb operator are needed. When a 3-dimensional spherically symmetric partial differential equation is solved by the method of separation of variables in spherical coordinates, the part that remains after removal of the radial part is typically = {\displaystyle \lambda =\ell (\ell +1)\,} of derivatives of ordinary Legendre polynomials (m ≥ 0), The (−1)m factor in this formula is known as the Condon–Shortley phase. 15 0 obj ( >> %���� z {\displaystyle \lambda =\ell (\ell +1)} This equation has nonzero solutions that are nonsingular on [−1, 1] only if ℓ and m are integers with 0 ≤ m ≤ ℓ, or with trivially equivalent negative values. = In the form of spherical harmonics, they express the symmetry of the two-sphere under the action of the Lie group SO(3). ℓ are the spherical harmonics, and the quantity in the square root is a normalizing factor. ( π Y|�����?�`����>��y�C���N»I�"PHgĨz��fF��,L���z[�w� P ϕ In particular, it occurs when solving Laplace's equation (and related partial differential equations) in spherical coordinates. ℓ 0, the above equation has Some authors omit it. 1 and hence the solutions are spherical harmonics. θ {\displaystyle \nabla ^{2}\psi +\lambda \psi =0} for which the solutions are cos Polynôme de Legendre: wikipedia: Special functions (scipy.special) scipy: scipy.special.legendre: scipy: Legendre Module (numpy.polynomial.legendre) scipy: Add a comment : Post Please log-in to post a comment. ) ��ǘ:c&(�›������Dq�}5��ԧ;���}.�Ow���_��u�+�]���k�W�2N2�cnO,��l8%)���d�S׀9)jf�C�И4�������$�3��5�ϝO,C��|����|p>�zxT7x?�Oh�x���@�q��Hh���Ǘ�M�3���̺˼�S��A-rp�ٱˆ�/��b�/�wn�ͥ�7����͢�� ��� .W� M���*�meI|+�K���i��=H�^p��z�3s�,�����D��� �Ɗ'��ݍ�� = ��bSzD��~I�k��'!�D��%�L%��|&;[email protected]�hۮ,�O�Hl\7=�L�� ��\��������ןX��[email protected]��NLܮp�����B���uQE��qrs $ɥ�Lې�*� n�1��"h��\]�N.��� letting μ Together, they make a set of functions called spherical harmonics. ) Q for the various values of m and choices of sine and cosine. ℓ −ℓ − 1, and the functions for negative ℓ are defined by, From their definition, one can verify that the Associated Legendre functions are either even or odd according to. {\displaystyle Y_{\ell ,m}(\theta ,\phi )} 2 {\displaystyle _{2}F_{1}} 0. ϕ ] ⁡ The Associated Legendre Polynomial can also be written as: with simple monomials and the generalized form of the binomial coefficient. P Ääntämisohje: Opi, kuinka äännetään sana polynôme de Legendre äidinkielen tasoisesti kielellä ranska. , appears in a multiplying factor. an integer ≥ m, and those solutions are proportional to ℓ legendre uses a three-term backward recursion relationship in m. This recursion is on a version of the Schmidt seminormalized associated Legendre functions Q n m (x), which are complex spherical harmonics. on the surface of a sphere. 1 ≥ cos They satisfy m , defined as: P <> 1 For each choice of ℓ, there are 2ℓ + 1 functions Indeed, and 1 ,

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